They returned to Venice in , 24 years with many riches and treasures, they had travelled 15, miles. Marco Polo returned to Venice in with his fortune converted into gemstones. At this time, Venice was at war with the Republic of Genoa. Polo armed a galley equipped with a trebuchet to join the war, he was caught by Genoans in a skirmish in , off the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta and not during the battle of Curzola, off the Dalmatian coast.
The latter claim is due to a tradition recorded by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, he spent several months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to a fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa , who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China.
The book soon spread throughout Europe in manuscript form, became known as The Travels of Marco Polo. It depicts the Polos ' journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the inner workings of the Far East , including China and Japan. Polo was released from captivity in August , returned home to Venice , where his father and uncle in the meantime had purchased a large palazzo in the zone named contrada San Giovanni Crisostomo.
For such a venture, the Polo family invested profits from trading, many gemstones they brought from the East; the company continued its activities and Marco soon became a wealthy merchant. Marco and his uncle Maffeo financed other expeditions, but never left Venetian provinces, nor returned to the Silk Road and Asia. In he is mentioned in a Venetian document among lo.
Castile's name derives from the Spanish for "land of castles" in reference to the castles built in the area to consolidate the Christian Reconquest from the Moors. The capture of Toledo in added New Castile to the crown's territories, the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa heralded the Moors' loss of most of southern Spain. See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree ; the Muslim Kingdom of Granada was conquered in , formally passing to the Crown of Castile in that year. Since it lacks modern day official recognition, Castile no longer has defined borders; the area consisted of the Kingdom of Castile.
After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre , the definition of what constituted Castile began to change, its historical capital was Burgos. Since there have been two nominally Castilian autonomous communities in Spain, incorporating the toponym in their own official names: Castile and Leon and Castile-La Mancha.
A third, the Community of Madrid is regarded as part of Castile, by dint of its geographic enclosure within the entity and, above all, by the statements of its Statute of Autonomy, since its autonomic process originated in national interest and not in popular disaffection with Castile. Other territories in the former Crown of Castile are left out for different reasons. In fact, the territory of the Castilian Crown comprised all other autonomous communities within Spain with the exception of Aragon , Balearic Islands and Catalonia , all belonging to the former Crown of Aragon, Navarre , offshoot of the older Kingdom of the same name.
The Leonese region, part of the Crown of Castile from , was from medieval times considered a region in its own right on a par with the two Castiles, appeared on maps alongside Old Castile until the two joined as one region - Castile and Leon - in the s. In , Spain was further subdivided into administrative provinces. See Names given to the Spanish language; the Castilian Kingdom and people were considered to be the main architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Moors and of marriages, wars and annexation of their smaller Eastern and Western neighbours.
From the advent of the Bourbon Monarchy following the War of the Spanish Succession until the arrival of parliamentary democracy in , the Castilian language was the only one with official status in the Spanish state. Both are located in the state of New York. He was the son of his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in , several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in Once Alfonso was declared adult in , he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power, his achievements include solving the conquest of Algeciras.
After the death of the infantes John and Peter in , Juan Manuel and Juan el Tuerto split the kingdom among themselves according to their aspirations for regency as it was being looted by moors and the rebellious nobility. As soon as he took the throne, he began working hard to strengthen royal power by dividing his enemies.
Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile , but he could be bloody in his methods, he killed for reasons of state without any form of trial. He neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal , indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman , who bore him ten children. This set Peter an example. It may be that his early death, during the Great Plague of , at the Fifth Siege of Gibraltar , only averted a desperate struggle with Peter, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far.
Alfonso died in the night of 25—26 March Alfonso XI first had the union annulled two years later, his second marriage, in , was to his double first cousin Maria of Portugal, daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal. They had: Ferdinand. King Alfonso was not tall but well proportioned, he was rather strong and had fair skin and hair. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hannay, D..
In Chisholm, Hugh. Cambridge University Press. Complutense University of Madrid. ISSN Medieval Iberia : an encyclopedia, Ed. Michael Gerli and Samuel G. Armistead , Routledge , Travel literature The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, travel memoirs. One early travel memoirist in Western literature was Pausanias , a Greek geographer of the 2nd century AD. In the early modern period, James Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides helped shape travel memoir as a genre. Early examples of travel literature include Pausanias' Description of Greece in the 2nd century CE, the Journey Through Wales and Description of Wales by Gerald of Wales , the travel journals of Ibn Jubayr and Ibn Battuta , both of whom recorded their travels across the known world in detail; the travel genre was a common genre in medieval Arabic literature.
Travel literature became popular during the Song dynasty of medieval China ; the genre was called'travel record literature', was written in narrative, prose and diary style. Travel literature authors such as Fan Chengda and Xu Xiake incorporated a wealth of geographical and topographical information into their writing, while the'daytrip essay' Record of Stone Bell Mountain by the noted poet and statesman Su Shi presented a philosophical and moral argument as its central purpose.
One of the earliest known records of taking pleasure in travel, of travelling for the sake of travel and writing about it, is Petrarch's ascent of Mount Ventoux in He states, his companions who stayed at the bottom he called frigida incuriositas. He wrote about his climb, making allegorical comparisons between climbing the mountain and his own moral progress in life. Michault Taillevent , a poet for the Duke of Burgundy , travelled through the Jura Mountains in and recorded his personal reflections, his horrified reaction to the sheer rock faces, the terrifying thunderous cascades of mountain streams.
Antoine de la Sale , author of Petit Jehan de Saintre, climbed to the crater of a volcano in the Lipari Islands in , leaving us with his impressions. In the midth century, Gilles le Bouvier, in his Livre de la description des pays, gave us his reason to travel and write: Because many people of diverse nations and countries delight and take pleasure, as I have done in times past, in seeing the world and things therein, because many wish to know without going there, others wish to see, go, travel, I have begun this little book.
In , Richard Hakluyt published a foundational text of the travel literature genre. In the 18th Century, travel literature was known as the book of travels, which consisted of maritime diaries. In 18th century Britain every famous writer worked in the travel literature form. Captain James Cook's diaries were the equivalent of today's best sellers Alexander von Humboldt's Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of America, during the years — published in French, was translated to multiple languages and influenced naturalists, including Charles Darwin.
Other examples of travel literature include accounts of the Grand Tour. Aristocrats and others with money and leisure time travelled Europe to learn about the art and architecture of its past. Travel books come in styles ranging from the documentary, to the literary, as well as the journalistic, from memoir to the humorous to the serious. They are associated with tourism and include guide books.
Travel writing may be found in periodicals, on blogs and in books, it has been produced by a variety of writers, including travelers, military officers, explorers, pilgrims and physical scientists and migrants. Englishmen Eric Newby , H. Travel literature intersects with essay writing, as in V. Naipaul's India: A Wounded Civilization , whose trip became the occasion for extended observations on a nation and people; this is the case in Rebecca West's work on Yugoslavia , Black Lamb and Grey Falcon. Sometimes a writer will settle into a locality for an extended period, absorbing a sense of place while continuing to observe with a travel writer's sensibility.
Travel and nature writing. Through the influence of his father, Miguel de Zurita, physician to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor , he entered the public service as magistrate at Barbastro , in was appointed assistant-secretary of the Inquisition. In Zurita was nominated official chronicler of the Kingdom of Aragon, in Philip II of Spain attached him as secretary to the council of the Inquisition, delegating to him the conduct of all matters sufficiently important to require the king's signature.
Zurita's style is somewhat crabbed and dry. Hillgarth and Theory, Vol. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. En este contexto, los nobles aragoneses tampoco aceptaron el testamento y nombraron nuevo rey a Ramiro II el Monje, hermano de Alfonso y que era entonces obispo de Roda-Barbastro.
Nunc ergo, spontanea voluntate ac firmo cordis affectu, volo, precor, et mando cunctos homnies meos, milites scilicet, clericos ac pedites, quatenus castra et municiones sive alios omnes honores ita per eundem Raimundum comitem deincebs teneant et habeant sicut per regem debent tenere et habere, et ei tanquam regi in omnibus sub continua fidelitatem obediant.
Et ut in hoc nullum ocasionis vel pessime machinacionis ingenium ab aliquo possit intelligi, totum ei dimito, dono, atque concedo quiquid retinueram in ipsa alia carta donacionis regni quam ei antea feceram, cum filiam meam ei dedissem. Supradicta quoque omnia ego, Ranimirus, Aragonensis rex, dono, et firmiter laudo prephato Raimundo, comiti Barchinonensi, ut hec que illi presencialiter dono et omnia alia que habebat semper habeat ad servicium meum et fidelitatem omni tempore.
Supra dicta omnia illi dono et firmiter laudo sicut melius nunquam habuit frater meus Andefonsus, et habeat ea omnia ad fidelitatem meam omni tempore. Signum regis,? Signum Poncii, escritoris comitis, qui hoc scripsit domini regis precepto. Todas las cosas arriba mencionadas las otorgo y ratifico firmemente como mejor las tuvo alguna vez mi hermano Alfonso el Batallador , i para que las tenga todas perpetuamente bajo la fidelidad debida a mi persona. Lo que no dice la wiki: ver otros links de interes.
O con el desembarco en la corte papal de los Borgia. Para gobernar el imperio, los reyes catalanes delegaron en Virreyes, no existiendo nunca virrey en Barcelona sino Lugarteniente. Hasta el siglo XVIII los archiveros fueron escribanos reales, que cuidaban el ingreso de los registros y de los pergaminos al Archivo. Cancilleria real. Ruiz, R. Sanz y J. El invento del nuevo nombre es de Eso nadie lo niega, ni la wiki, ni el Archivo de la Corona, ni nadie. Hay otra prueba que me confirma este hecho. Echadle un ojo al documento.
Aqui abajo os copio de nuevo de la wiki en referencia a los decretos de nueva planta. Parece que tuvimos uno solo para Catalunya. Jesus did not give us religion, he showed us The Way Yahweh has revealed to us that this world is a huge hellhole, especially within the last few years. Many people today know the truth about most organized religions and the Bible refers to the majority of organized religions as harlots because they fornicate with Satan's kings of the earth.
The Vatican exerts great power and is in fact, the Madam, of whorehouse earth. Her and her children charge money for their lies Her royal colors are scarlet and purple. She has incorporated hundreds of graven and carved images including the cross on nearly all of her churches in direct violation of God's commands at Exodus 3, 4; Psalms ; Acts and she has sacrificed her sons and daughters to Satan's demonic wars all started with Greed being the true motivation.
She and her harlot children churches naturally hers and protestant churches is responsible for all of the deaths of the prophets, the saints, the civilians and the soldiers and all those who have been slaughtered upon the earth. Yes, today the craftsmen that centuries ago made images of Diana Acts 23,24 make images of what they call Jesus.
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She the mother delights in the fact that over two billion of her children churches celebrate Satan's favorite holiday's, Christmas, Easter and Halloween. Be not afraid of them; for they cannot do evil, neither is it also in them to do good. The heathen practice of cutting down trees to decorate began in Germany about four-hundred years after Jesus completed his mission on earth and had returned to his Father.
And my friends here know this and they understand about the pagan holidays and all of the many wiles of Satan the god of this world. I went with my Dad every Christmas as a child to the forest. And Dad let me choose the tree for him to cut down and he carried it out and he fastened it with nails and wood using a hammer, so it stood upright and my sisters and I put the silver and gold leis on it and then the other decorations.
I was in my thirties before I read Jeremiah 1 - 5 and soon after I left the harlot churches. If you want to see Mystery, Babylon, the Matrix and what most of us were born into watch a heartwarming movie called " Steel Magnolias," with Dolly Parton, as it shows the many ways Satan's favorite church and her harlot children deceive and mislead the entire inhabited earth. Many felt that Emperor Nero was behind this fire so he quickly blamed the congregation of The Way that was in Rome during that time. History books erroneously refer to them as The First Century Christians because of their refusal to incorporate the cross and other graven, carved images in their lives as they kept the True God,Yahweh's commandments about such disgusting things.
They also kept out of politics as Jesus did. Nero sent out his soldiers to arrest any who belonged to The Way, among them being the Apostles Paul and Peter. They took many of them to the Roman Colosseum to be entertainment for the good citizens of Rome to come and watch them be torn apart and eaten by Lions. Paul was saved by an angel from the Lions mouth. I hope not. Why would the angel keep Paul from the lion's mouth and then let him be beheaded? Many of the men that were arrested were rolled in pitch and impaled on poles, and set on fire and to be used as street lights!
Have you ever heard the term Roman candle?
Some members of The Way escaped and fled to the hills and caves that surrounded Rome. Later a union between the Pharisees and Roman Priests would form the basis for the early Roman Catholic Church and she would make the claim that they were the first Christians. Indeed, they are but they were not approved by Jesus and in fact they are Accursed. You can see her children on the Trinity broadcasting network charging their customers to have their ears tickled, selling all manner of religious materials and pleading for donations.
Many of these fleecers of the flock live in Shameless luxury just like their mother in Rome. Jesus never charged a dime for what he did while in the world. He said ' you received free, give free. He flogged many of them and approved their executions. Jesus stopped Saul by flashing a brilliant light into his eyes that caused him to stumble and fall and then Saul heard a voice from heaven speak to him ' Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? Nevertheless, Jesus instructed Saul where to go in Damascus and then Jesus would visit him and make it known to him that he had chosen him to teach The Way in many cities, and he showed him how many trials, persecutions, imprisonments and sufferings he would now endure as a member of The Way.
Soon after this Saul would be known as the Apostle Paul. He wrote 14 books of the New Testament. He preached The Way far and wide so that when he left the congregations they were thoroughly able to teach it even better than before. His Father drew us to his Son, and then gave us to his Son, Jesus, so that he is our owner, and our Life, and our brother. Furthermore, anyone who does not listen to the words of that Prophet will be completely destroyed from among the people.
Jesus was sent to earth to become flesh by his Father, and to be sacrificed for our sins. This was his mission. He gave his life willingly for the whole world and anyone who truly believes in him and repents of their sins has the real hope of Eternal Life. Will you and I allow Satan the ruler of this world to brand us with a microchip implant or electronic tattoo with its inside of it, into our bodies? It is a big deal if we willingly accept it because if we do we will never live in Paradise with Jesus and we will lose out on everlasting Life. To accept it is to be branded a slave of Satan.
To refuse it is to stand with Jesus. If we refuse it Satan will have his weeds kill us. To refuse it is truly to die for Jesus knowing full well that he will resurrect all that died for him. Those that accept the mark will break out all over their bodies with horrible, foul-smelling sores head to toe, that will very likely kill them. Revelation 3: 9 " Look! I will give those from the synagogue of Satan, who say they are Jews, and yet they are LyingLook!
I will make them come and bow before your feet and make them know that I have loved You. So just as he is going to plunge the knife into his son's heart, the angel stops him! Now the reason for the test, is this pictures what God who is a Consuming Fire Deuteronomy 4: 24 had planned to do for the whole world and that was to send His firstborn, perfect Son, Jesus, to earth to become a sacrifice for the sins of the world, and He needed to know if Abraham loved Him enough to sacrifice his son to Him.
Abraham certainly passed the Test, and so did Jesus when he was tempted by Satan at Luke 4: 5, and so can we, if we have Faith in Jesus. Love one another Amen. No, we don't belong to a religion we are body members of the Congregation of Jesus who is The Way. We of The Way, do not attend any of the harlot churches because they teach commands of men, rather that the words that Jesus heard from his Father and spoke. John 22 - 24 Praise Jah you people! Alguns cops apareix com Otger Gotlant.
No es seguro que este enterrado en la isla de re. No se ha encontrado su tumba, si se ha encontrado una corona. Martinez, Ph. Frederick P. Gilberto Quezada Oscar S. Ramirez, Ph. Frank Talamantes, Ph. Ann Troutner, M. Hi Mimi! Hope all is well with you. Name looked very familiar too. And sure enough - it was the same article and the same author, who is a member of the Facebook group. I was pleasantly surprised. Nacho shares really interesting history articles in the Facebook group.
Sylvia N. Guns and Gun Laws. Aguirre writes: Mimi, I organized this seminar to educate attorneys and law students regarding key civil rights cases that originated in Orange County, California that set precedent for Supreme Court decisions and to highlight the courageous persons of color here in Orange County who asserted their Constitutional and human rights through our courts and the attorneys and judges who administered justice.
My video on the Mendez case and all of the PowerPoint presentations and cases can be accessed through the website and can be downloaded and shared with the public. Editor Mimi: Judge Aguirre was among the first groups of Mexican American children accepted into the desegregated schools in Orange County. Moderated by Hon. Andrew J. Her job was to empty the ashtrays. They seemed to always be full, as the parents spent hours strategizing on one topic: how to make sure their children got a fair education in Orange County schools.
The event marked the 70th anniversary of Mendez vs. Westminster, a little-known court ruling — born from those meetings in Barrios Market — that not only ended segregation of California schools, but helped pave the way for desegregation nationwide. She knew about the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education case, but had no idea until recently that it was won using the same legal argument and some of the same legal team — including Marshall — who fought for Latino families in Orange County.
And she credits Chapman University associate Sandra Robbie with bringing that history to light. There was never a statewide policy of segregation in California. But four local school districts — including Westminster, Garden Grove, El Modena and Santa — took it upon themselves in the mids to send students of Latin American descent to different schools on the basis of an assumed language gap.
Five families sued over that policy, including the Mendezes, the Estradas, the Guzmans, the Ramirezes and the Palominos. Andrew Palomino and his sister Annette Diogostine said their father, who died five years ago, frequently talked about attending a segregated school. But they said their dad, who was probably around 8 at the time, never talked about the court case.
Westminster had just two elementary schools at the time. White students attended 17th Street Elementary, with a tree-lined drive leading to a brick and concrete structure. Al Hernandez attended Hoover from kindergarten through fourth grade with his siblings, who were all first generation Mexican Americans. Though he and his siblings had been born in Anaheim, Hernandez said everyone spoke only Spanish at Hoover Elementary.
So when they were moved to desegregated schools in the area, Hernandez said they had a tough time communicating with their teachers and white classmates. Music helped, he said. To her, it illustrates the far-reaching impact of the Mendez case. Thanks to Robbie, the Mendez case has been gaining recognition over the past decade.
Carlos received his Ph. Canales that he used in his downtown Brownsville law office. Canales said it was also the desk of his famous uncle Juan Cortina. The desk is circa Canales stated that the desk was also used by Juan Cortina, his uncle. There is an attractive, massive bookcase that I have that had some of his valuable rare books. I have a few of these items. Let me know. Bravo, used during his twenty-year tenure in office. Judge Bravo passed away in , at the age of 83, and his desk had been in storage in an old warehouse in Zapata since he resigned from his post as county judge in When I started to work on Judge Bravo's political biography in the early s, my wife, Jo Emma, became interested in finding and restoring the desk.
Her father remembered where it was located. It was in pretty bad shape when we found it. Carefully and with much care, the desk was shipped to our garage in Zapata where Jo Emma work diligently and meticulously to restore it to its original condition, which after a few months, she accomplished the task very successfully. Judge Bravo's desk is not as old as the one Carlos inherited from J.
Canales, but we remembered that Jo Emma's father had said that a judge from San Antonio had given it to him. In the fourth photo, you will see a refurbished desk, which we have placed in our library room in our house in Zapata. Jo Emma also preserved the gavel that Judge Bravo used when he presided as county judge of Zapata County for twenty years, from to In the fifth photo, you will also see her grandfather's name plate that was placed on the front of his desk.
And, in the sixth photo, you will see the same American flag that appeared in the first photo.
Whenever we stay in our house in Zapata, it is Judge Bravo's desk that I use to do my reading and writing projects. Both of them, however, were contemporaries and worked together to fight social and racial discrimination in South Texas. In the 'Judge Bravo Papers' I found several letters between the two of them. Bravo and Zapata County. The last photo, which was taken before we placed the Underwood typewriter on the upper right hand corner, shows me at work.
If only these desks could speak! I can only hope that Canales desk will get there somehow. I do believe that we need a Latino national museum to enhance our history and to boost our self-esteem. Thank you for the nice photos. And, like Carlos so aptly stated that if only the desks could talk, what fascinating stories they could tell. And, Mimi, may God continue to bless your tremendous work. Since then over different Hispanic newspapers, magazines, and other types of publications have become members of the NAHP.
Over the decades of the s and s we saw the first real national recognition for Hispanic Print. While other medias have seen their ad revenues decline since then, Hispanic Print still totals over a billion dollars a year. Over the decades we've seen similar grow in numbers of publications and collective circulations by categories. For instance, in there were 74 weekly Hispanic publications in the USA. Today there are weeklies.
One of the real strengths of the NAHP is that by working together we make everyone stronger. Hispanic Print is different than Mainstream Media and researching those points is important to keeping our industry strong. Come join, learn, grow. How you can help:. Thank you, and God bless you. The Anti-Christian action seemed to appear and grow rapidly in the s.
I was teaching locally and remembered my surprise when activists decided that Christmas carols in public schools were a violation of the separation of state and church. In the last 50 or so years, the issue has escalated with the removal of the nativity scene in some public places, and continued with the removal of Bibles in veteran hospitals, and not allowing soldiers in combat to pray in groups.
Compounding the frightening conclusions is the fact that people of the Christian faith have been the most targeted religious group in the world since Violence, murder and subversion of open practice have spread to nearly every corner of the globe. Christians are under attack like never before in modern history. Here in Orange County, California, instead of Chicano studies, multi-ethnic studies grew. In general, most immigrants were of a Christian faith. However, the entrance into United States of huge numbers of members of the Islamic faith has created problems in all aspects of life in the United States.
As communities have welcomed Muslims into Interfaith Councils, etc. Children are given classroom assignments to pray to Allah, and universities are reflecting positions contrary to tolerance and free speech. Sadly, tolerance is not being practiced towards all. Violence against Christians and Jewish groups on campus is escalating. Unfortunately the internet is an important tool which can and has been used to shape thinking and organize riots.
During the election we certainly had front seats in observing mob action violence, assembled through the power of the internet. My husband, Win tries to keep up with world news. A retired engineer, he explained that Google uses an algorithm which orders the presentation of information in agreement with their political views.
Granted, everyone has a right to present their views. I have never seen any PragerU YouTube's that could be described as such. The PragerU YouTube's that I have viewed are totally consistent with traditional Judeo-Christian principles, usually bright, clear, short and to the point. Whatever it means, it must go beyond an algorithm devised by any one corporation , setting the speech rules on the playground of the global skies. A "Hate Crime" appears to be defined as bodily violence based on prejudice against a specific group.
But what is "Hate Speech"? Disagreeing politically should not be identified as "Hate "Speech". Yet groups are using that term to stop individuals and groups from voicing their opinion, their free speech. The importance of free speech can not be minimized. It is the foundation of a free democratic society. Google and YouTube have the technology in place to thwart free speech. Let us hope that the principles of respect for the individual will grow, and rather than fall backward and emerge into a George Orwell nation, with only politically correct speech and thinking allowed, the internet can and should allow all voices to be heard.
Note what is happening in Canada. The whole process of fast-tracking this bill, and slandering pro-life people throughout, was a shame. After the Liberals were lambasted in the press for rejecting the motion allegedly to divide the Tory caucus over abortion, the three parties agreed to unanimously fast-track the legislation. According to Naqvi, the impetus for Bill came from Ottawa mayor Jim Watson, who asked for it after staff at the Morgentaler abortion center on Banks Street alleged that pro-life protestors were harassing and intimidating women as they approached the abortion facility.
There was a alleged incident of someone spitting on a woman. But pro-life blogger Patricia Moloney obtained through a freedom of information request a record of Ottawa police attendance at the Morgentaler abortion center from January to June It is unknown if the assaults were perpetrated against pro-life or against pro-choice people. So why do we need this bubble zone? Why did Jim Watson initiate this law? He prefers to treat us like second class citizens. If we try and discuss pro-life concerns with him, either by email or in person , his disgust for us is clear.
Five pro-life groups presented on the bill during the hearings, as did eight abortion advocacy groups, and pro-bill Ottawa city counselor Catherine McKenney.
FIVE GENERATIONS OF RANCHING
Similar legislation passed in BC in was challenged in court, he said. He submitted a peer-reviewed study presented by abortion advocates and published last year in Canadian Family Physician reported on a survey of abortion facilities across Canada. It says if you hold a certain opinion, you cannot express it. Your constitutional rights are not protected. The committee made no amendments to the bubble zone bill, which is now only needs royal assent to become law. Serving in Congress is an honor, not a career.
The Founding Fathers envisioned citizen legislators, who would serve their term s , then go home and go back to work. Salary of retired US Presidents.. Here's where cuts could be made! All funds in the Congressional retirement fund move to the Social Security system immediately. All future funds flow into the Social Security system, and Congress participates with the American people.
It may not be used for any other purpose. Congress can purchase their own retirement plan, just as all Americans do.. Congress will no longer vote themselves a pay raise. Congress loses their current health care system and participates in the same health care system as the American people. Congress must equally abide by all laws they impose on the American people. Average Salary of a teacher. Yes, that day of grace, that fullness of life, Still lifts my heart and mind from a solitude That evicts my soul from pique to love And delights me from confusing times.
Autumn, those days are now rarely lived. DNA had showed we were related, our family research records, showed us how!! Early this October, I received a notice through ancestry. My great-grandmother is a Villela from Nonoava and that line in my tree ended with her father so naturally I wanted more information. We continued corresponding and at one point I asked where he was living.
To my surprise, he lives in LA County. Our correspondence started on a Thursday and that same weekend, Saturday, I was to give a presentation to the Whittier Area Genealogical Society and invited him to attend. Yes, he would be there. Before I was to start, I saw a man who I thought could be my cousin. We met again at my home, this time it was his sister, Vivian, Albert, and I.
We had not been able to find the common ancestor so that was the purpose of this meeting. The problem was that his Great-great grandfather and my great-great grandfather had different wives, or so it seemed. What a find! Las fuerzas del mal siempre regresan, como un hongo, para alimentarse del tejido carcomido del mundo. Campos y Escalante campce gmail. Others as of late are highly offended by something that happened years ago and yet, are only here to complain about it because of being direct beneficiaries of it.
This decree also called the decree of expulsion set July of as the no-later-than date for Jews to be gone from Spain. Angered by false albeit forced conversions and centuries of Muslim domination of their Iberian Peninsula, the monarchs sought to solidify their control by ridding their empire of any non-Roman Catholics.
Any Jews remaining after July, or anyone found sheltering them, risked having all their possessions and wealth confiscated by the state. Of note, the Spanish Inquisition was still in its infancy but would be remembered for its unjust imprisonments, unbelievably brutal torture methods, and being burnt at the stake.
But as July loomed, Sephardic Jews would once again find themselves being uprooted from their homes and moved away. The Old Testament prophets such as Moses, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel recorded how their descendants would be a people scattered about the earth and on the move as a continuation of the divine chastisement for their disobedience.
Thus, the entirety of the 1, years of Jewish Diaspora would be one marked by expulsion and exile. Then the Lord will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other, and there you shall serve other gods, which neither you nor your fathers have known—wood and stone. And among those nations you shall find no rest, nor shall the sole of your foot have a resting place; but there the Lord will give you a trembling heart, failing eyes, and anguish of soul. Your life shall hang in doubt before you; you shall fear day and night, and have no assurance of life.
Deuteronomy Yet, as if by divine providence, August 3 rd of would be a day that would change the world forever. This was the day that an Italian some say even Jewish explorer named Christopher Columbus set sail to find a new western trade route to India. Christopher Columbus has since been largely hailed as opening up the New World to European colonization. It would seem, that the notoriously violent pagan empires of the Aztecs and Mayans, finally got their own version of a comeuppance. Many disagree as to whether this was beneficial or not to the then-current inhabitants of the new continents, but regardless, we are here and that is history.
But as Spain, England, and other European and Middle Eastern nations were in varying stages of turning against their Jewish citizens, God was busy preparing another way. The Americas would become a safe haven for the Jewish people for the next four centuries. What we fail to see, is that for the previous three centuries, Rome was a steamroller busy conquering anyone and everyone they turned their iron-fisted gaze towards. Jewish populations still existed in Babylon, Asia-Minor, Alexandria, and other places that were under the Roman thumb.
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This is why during the major religious holidays such as Passover, Jerusalem would be filled to the brim with Jews from within the Empire. This allowed the gospel to spread rapidly across the Roman Empire. It was here also that the Christian faith was the most attacked. The tension for those subsequent decades after the Resurrection was increasingly palpable. It would eventually come to a head not with Christians but with Rome in which the reality would change.
Flavius Josephus records that around a million Jews died as well as the Second Temple being destroyed in the siege by Roman General Titus. Another rebellion in AD cemented the Diaspora when then Emperor Hadrian forbade the Jews from returning to the land. And they will fall by the edge of the sword, and be led away captive into all nations. And Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.
Having returned to the land in , established as a nation in , the Jews were reclaiming more and more of their ancient homeland with each subsequent war. We are again at a point in time when the Jews are the most militarily and economically powerful nations in the world. Conclusion This author firmly believes that the rash of both natural and man-made disasters that have seemingly plagued the Trump Administration thus far is largely due to an un-kept promise that was made during the campaign trail of moving our embassy to the capital of Israel.
Then he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week; But in the middle of the week He shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall be one who makes desolate, Even until the consummation, which is determined, Is poured out on the desolate. Whether the new temple is already standing at this point is up for much debate, but seeing as the nation of Israel thanks to the Temple Mount Faithful and other groups has everything pretty much ready to go.
It would seem that all that needs to happen is the right crisis. That crisis could come in the form of war or something that removes the benefactor status away from the United States. That could be the Rapture of the Church, or we could suffer some major calamity that removes us from any significant role for the time being. Ultimately, the third Temple will stand again, and it will be here that this man Antichrist uses as a bargaining chip to put the Jews back in his crosshairs.
Yes, they will mourn for Him as one mourns for his only son, and grieve for Him as one grieves for a firstborn. It is this week that God pours out His judgments on a Christ-rejecting world. Although most of the world is destroyed, God uses this as the chastisement to bring Israel back to the point that they finally realize that Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ after all. As to the nations… I will also gather all nations, And bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; And I will enter into judgment with them there On account of My people, My heritage Israel, Whom they have scattered among the nations; They have also divided up My land.
The Jew has survived because God is merciful and He keeps His word. Sent by O dell Harwell odell. In accordance with Title 17 U. Kapp learned to play football on those lettuce fields , and it was also in those housing projects where Kapp developed a toughness that defined the rest of his life. They had gang fights going all the time and even an occasional shoot-out or knifing. In football—a sport that values toughness above all—Kapp earned a respect that overcame his actual ability. Growing up in an environment that, above all else, valued toughness, influenced how Kapp played quarterback.
He was a barroom brawler, someone who even started fights with teammates. The first fight occurred while playing in Canada; it left him with a scar across the jaw, courtesy of a bottle broken and raked across his face. The gash required stitches and came within a half-inch of severing his jugular. As they drank tequila and expressed that blame should fall on them, the disagreement escalated to a fist fight. Further, as a Mexican-American, Kapp served as a uniting force between white and black players.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons. Leading up the game—where the Vikings were 13 point favorites against the Kansas City Chiefs—newspapers across the country mentioned his unconventional talent. Classics are for Greeks. Few, if any, get out of playing professional football without long-lasting effects. This was especially the case with Kapp. The loss included Kapp getting knocked out of the game with a shoulder injury.
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It just stops. Kapp would eventually end up on the New England Patriots before sitting out the season, again, to protest his contract. Devoid of context, his overall statistics seem mediocre. His name also gets mentioned when discussing the long-term health effects of football. This was especially the case with Kapp, who played in a different era of football—and society—where there was an added value to toughness; or, in his world, machismo.
At years-old, Kapp got into a fistfight and knocked down a former opponent while on stage at a banquet honoring them. Joe Kapp played only 4 seasons in the NFL. He is not as deserving of the Pro Football Hall of Fame as Jim Plunkett or Tom Flores are—who remain outside of serious consideration despite their clear qualifications —but Kapp was a pioneer.
NFL players have been arrested times since It even includes two murders. Statistically speaking, this is insignificant! What is never told, however, is a breakdown of those 30, deaths, to put them in perspective as compared to other causes of death:. So technically, "gun violence" is not 30, annually, but drops to 5, Still too many? Well, first, how are those deaths spanned across the nation? All 4 of those cities have strict gun laws, so it is not the lack of law that is the root cause. This basically leaves 3, for the entire rest of the nation, or about 75 deaths per state.
That is an average because some States have much higher rates than others. Now, who has the strictest gun laws by far? California, of course, but understand, it is not guns causing this. It is a crime rate spawned by the number of criminal persons residing in those cities and states. So if all cities and states are not created equally, then there must be something other than the tool causing the gun deaths. Are 5, deaths per year horrific?
How about in comparison to other deaths? All death is sad and especially so when it is in the commission of a crime but that is the nature of crime. Robbery, death, rape, assault all is done by criminals and thinking that criminals will obey laws is ludicrous. That's why they are criminals. But what about other deaths each year? Now it gets good:. So what is the point? So you have to ask yourself, in the grand scheme of things, why the focus on guns?
The founders of this nation knew that regardless of the form of government, those in power may become corrupt and seek to rule as the British did by trying to disarming the populace of the colonies. It is not difficult to understand that a disarmed populace is a controlled populace. Thus, the second amendment was proudly and boldly included in the US.
It must be preserved at all costs. So the next time someone tries to tell you that gun control is about saving lives, look at these facts and remember these words from Noah Webster: "Before a standing army can rule, the people must be disarmed, as they are in almost every kingdom in Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword, because the whole body of the people are armed and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops that can be, on any pretense, raised in the United States. A military force at the command of Congress can execute no laws, but such as the people perceive to be just and constitutional; for they will possess the power.
Department of Housing and Urban Development, and hardly a peep has been heard from the media. It is intended as a positive voice reflecting good works and good events. The concept was organized and developed by Mike Briggs. The availability was offered as a free service. There are a few volunteer interviewers, and thousands interviewed seasonally.
Robin was interviewed by Rev. Steve Walling. She explains current DNA research on the Wilbur-Cruce horses and their genetic connection to the Spanish horse who were brought into the Americas by the Spanish in the s. These horses heritage is traceable to the Iberian plains, thousands of years ago.
Robin's dream is to preserve the history and proven lineage of the Wilbur-Cruce horses at Rancho del Sueno. By Ann Troutner, M. Ana Trucha. Oct 22, The Wilbur-Cruce horses are rare and critically endangered with less than on the planet. HDC , a preservation, conservation, historical and educational c 3 non-profit.
That is why I am giving back to them by trying to conserve the quickly fading segments of their history, re-create their distinguished past and tell of the stories of the peoples they served and the lives they changed by founding the Heritage Discovery Center. We offer event and banquet services for your special occasions, like birthdays, weddings and anniversaries.
Contact: Ann Troutner, M. Ana Trucha atroutner prescott. These 4 hour Sailing Adventures are for people who love history, and sailing. Very few people have sailed aboard Galleons of the sixteenth century and these day sails will offer the public a chance to be aboard the magnificent galleon, the San Salvador. You can check-in as early as am, enjoy the Museum before or after your sail. Any new times will be noted on ticket. Why is the 12th of April celebrated in Louisiana? The first part of the title is a famous quote from Galvez. A few of our uniformed members served as Color Guard and presented information about our organization at the book signing last Thursday evening.
The first paragraph of the newspaper article states, "The Fife and Drum Corps of the Granaderos y Damas de Galvez, attired in the uniforms of 18th-century Spanish grenadiers, is a regular feature of public life in San Antonio, including ceremonies at the Alamo and Fiesta parades. Viva los Granaderos y Damas de Galvez!
Joe Perez jperez satx. Carlos Campos y Escalante campce gmail. On this day in , a group of Mexican Americans and Mexicans met at the city auditorium in Harlingen, Texas, to discuss organizing against racial discrimination. Members of various existing groups--including the Order of Sons of America and the Order of Knights of America--attended. The convention was divided, however, over the question of whether Mexican citizens should be involved in a Texas political organization.
So serious was the disagreement that perhaps 90 percent of the delegates bolted from the meeting. Moreover, some remaining conferees opposed forming a new organization. Nevertheless, a new group came into being. Perales provisionally called it the League of Latin American Citizens. By George Farias.
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In the University of Texas in Austin offered him a temporary position to fill in for an ill faculty member of European and Medieval studies. He was allowed to teach the colonial history of Texas and went to Mexico in search of sources. He quickly became the leader in the field. Bolton developed two basic concepts to revise the way in which U. Secondly, he urged U. Needless to say, many historians disagreed with Bolton seeing the Spanish episode as a small prelude to the emergence and dominance of England. Bolton received criticism for his work, but he successfully initiated his program developing over time many Ph.
Moorhead and John Francis Bannon. We live in an English-speaking country with deep Protestant roots, and knowledge of Spanish history in the United States, which is mostly Catholic, will remain subordinated for a long time and little appreciated. Recently the rise of Hispanic genealogical non-profit clubs and organizations in the United States is bringing to the fore the fact that Hispanic explorers and settlers in the Americas contributed significantly not only to the development of Mexico and Latin America but to the United States as well.
Cadena, one of the lawyers who won the landmark Hernandez vs. Texas case before the Supreme Court. To understand the influence of Spain in America one needs to begin with a review and perspective of the historical time periods in the New World. Consider that by the time Jamestown was founded in , Spain had been in America for over a hundred years. The English were able to settle on the East Coast because that area had been bypassed by Spaniards as not containing enough resources to make it worthwhile.
By that time over , persons of Spanish, Portuguese, and Basque descent were living in the New World. Within fifty years of the founding of America, Spanish maritime expeditions had already explored all the coast lines of North, Central, and South America. Many towns, missions, and cathedrals existed, and a university was in operation in Mexico City.
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He had been born and baptized in the Catholic faith and went to Spain twice and later to Mexico City. He spoke Castilian and was on hand to meet the Jamestown settlers. He helped them with farming, hunting, building shelters, and tribal relations. Another historical perspective that is not usually obvious about American history is that the period from the discovery of America in to U.
From to today, , the time span is years. In studying history we forget this fact, thinking that our history started somewhere shortly before the time of George Washington. We are not generally cognizant that significant historical events, mostly Spanish, occurred during those prior years. But our academic inculcation of English history tends to consider those times, which are longer than our modern period, as historical blanks. Its exact location is not known. Located in a swampy area, malaria, unfriendly Indians, and homesickness doomed the settlement from the start much like the struggle for survival by the Jamestown settlers.
Two other Spanish settlements predated Jamestown in and Plymouth in This period has been much glamorized in U. This was a period of years presided over by 62 viceroys, in effect representatives of the Spanish kings. This expansion included two major northward movements from Mexico City into what is now Texas and New Mexico. The last major outpost, Monterrey, in what is now Northern Mexico, was founded September 20, It was the farthest outpost in the wilderness.
To the north was Texas, the unknown land. The northern movement continued after Mexico became independent from Spain and all told this expansion lasted years. It is noteworthy that the two movements merged in Texas, that of the buckskin-clad frontiersman who met the Mexican vaquero and, borrowed his ranching knowledge and techniques. Thus, the folklore of the heroic Western cowboy was born. Forts were built to stem the Indian tide and to protect property. Ranches, farms, and towns were established by settlers, including those for mining bases, with public officials elected to govern.
The Catholic religious orders established missions and schools and the wilderness was slowly pushed back.
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