Example 4. Comparison between the first and third guitar solos. Example 5. Motivic development in the second guitar solo. The melodies featured in these five guitar-based segments are more diverse and animated than those sung by Gilmour and Waters throughout the song, and by concentrating on chord tones, they also offer relief from the dissonant sung melodies. While the former preserves the dynamism of the preceding sections, the latter pushes the energy to its peak. The differences between them are apparent precisely because both solos are closely related: the third solo borrows gestures from the first solo and develops them with an aggressive finish, as shown using colored brackets and pop-up texts in Example 4.
Although more than double the length of the outer two solos, it is almost exclusively based on repetitions and variations of two simple motifs: an ascending fifth D—A, shown with red boxes in Example 5, and a descending third F—D, shown with blue circles. Both motifs derive from the tonic triad D—F—A and are developed through the use of embellishment, augmentation, and alternation. These sounds, skillfully produced on the electric guitar by Gilmour, are reminiscent of an animal howling, thus relating to the dog barks heard during the free interlude and the beginning of section C.
Of the three solos, this is the only one that has existed in all versions of the song since , and it has been developed over the years. An examination of some different live versions of the song indicates that this solo matured slowly, through slight changes from each concert to the next, and that the motifs described here were already seeded during the first tour. When Gilmour entered the studio in to record the solo, he already had a clear vision of it, based on two years of trial and error.
In an elaborated version of an idea that originated on the previous album, two additional guitars join in toward the end of the solo, all played by Gilmour. In its preceding thirteen appearances throughout the song, this chord was left unresolved. This last time, however, an unexpected sense of relief is achieved with the arrival of the following D-minor chord m.
Retrospectively, the whole-tone scale has made the A sus2sus 4 chord function like an altered dominant: a six-note whole-tone V chord A — B —C—D—E— F that resolves into a pure tonic triad that lies a tritone away D—F—A. It is no surprise that due to its vigor and structural importance, this solo demands four extra measures. The switch in narrative voice from second person in the exposition to first person in the recapitulation is highlighted by the change of singer: David Gilmour, whose soothing, melancholic voice humanizes the exposition, is replaced in the recapitulation by Roger Waters, whose singing is arguably more bitter and pungent in tone.
As a result, the recapitulation creates a denser and more aggressive impression. Due to their different levels of intensity, placement in the song, and character of their accompaniments, these solos and duets also generate a strong sense of direction throughout the piece. E, the second degree in the scale, aspires to resolve into the tonic; by refusing to do so, it generates melodic tension throughout the song.
The numerous appearances of this motif can easily be traced by listening to the beginning of each harmonic cycle in the song: almost all of them begin with a melodic dyad F—E or D—E over a D-minor chord. The song is saturated with neighbor chords to the dominant A major: B add4 , A sus2sus 4 , and B , all of which aspire to resolve to A and are emphasized and expanded during their efforts to do so.
Through the majority of the song, these chords do not truly resolve, instead building a harmonic tension that coincides with the melodic one. Throughout the first three harmonic cycles of section C, however, this resolution appears only in the accompaniment and does not relieve the tension of the melody.
Figure 8. Resolving the melodic and harmonic tensions at the end of the exposition and the coda. It happens in two structural moments: the ending of the exposition and the ending of the entire song. This is the first time in the song that such a unison occurs, and Gilmour accentuates the moment by straining his voice to an A5, the upper extreme of his register and indeed the highest sung note in the entire song.
After plentiful repetitions of the F—E motif through sections A, B, and C, the note E determinedly resolves into D, offering for the first time a perfect authentic cadence that resolves both the melodic and the harmonic tensions built up so far. Hammering the nails into the coffin of the protagonist, the same melodic phrase repeats again and again, total of eleven times.
The intensity begins to grow in the seventh line, in which a repeated, processed delay effect is added to the melody.
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The peak of tension arrives when the repeated harmonic progression suddenly stops with a firm arrival of a B -major chord see Figure 8 above. Many large-scale tracks by progressive rock bands of the s maintain variety and direction by featuring virtuosic performances, an eventful tonal scheme, and sophisticated rhythms. Pink Floyd utilizes a different, and arguably subtler, type of virtuosity: an aptitude for arrangement and structure, coupled with proficiency in the studio. Although more than half of the track is based on a single harmonic progression, its construction and versatile treatment create a sense of variety and freshness.
The multiple guitar solos and duets calibrate the energy of the song, define each of its sections, and produce a strong sense of direction. Lastly, the arrangement fosters an integral bond between lyrics and music, while each stanza receives a personalized musical arrangement and central lines spark instrumental sections that enrich the imagery. By presenting a successful large-scale structure that uses building blocks appropriate for a standard-length song, Pink Floyd did something altogether novel, charting a new path for form in rock music.
Despite the influence of Pink Floyd on other rock musicians, however, it seems that this path has not been followed by others. While it is beyond the scope of this article to investigate the reasons for this, I would suggest that other progressive bands have not been interested in working with the musical vocabulary of standard rock, whereas musicians outside the progressive realm have preferred shorter and more intuitive forms.
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Clement, Brett. Cotner, John S. Kevin Holm-Hudson. Covach, John. Covach and G. Boone, 3— Oxford University Press. Deborah Stein, 65— Long Songs List.rettycardoggless.gq/politics-in-portuguese/
Top 30 Best Electric Guitar Rock Songs of the 70’s - GUITARHABITS
Everett, Walter. Ford, Peter T. Gilmour, David. Interview by Charlie Kendall. Interview by John Stix. Guitar Classics VI January. Interview by Alan di Perna. Guitar World February. Interview by Darrin Fox. Guitar Player January. Katorza, Ari. Macan, Edward. MacDonald, Bruno, ed. Pink Floyd: Through the Eyes of. The Band, its Fans, Friends and Foes. Da Capo Press. Moore, Allan F. Accessed January 30, Mason, Nick. Russell Reising, 69— Russell Reising, 87— Ashgate Publishing.
Osborn, Brad. Povey, Glenn and Ian Russell. Reising, Russell, ed. Rose, Philip A. Collector's Guide. Schaffner, Nicholas.
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Saucerful of Secrets. Spicer, Mark. Walter Everett, — White, Snowy. Interview by Michael Simone. REG 29 Yodfat, Adam. Ari Katorza, — Zak, Albin. Australian Pink Floyd. Accessed May 12, Edginton, John dir. UK: Eagle Rock Entertainment. Emerson, Lake and Palmer. Sony , , compact disc. Originally released in Jethro Tull.
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Minstrel in the Gallery. Mallet, David, dir. Pulse , DVD. USA: Sony. Pink Floyd. The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. Capitol Records 2 5, , compact disc. EMI 2 4, , compact disc. EMI 2, , compact disc. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol Records 2 7, , compact disc.
Obscured by Clouds. Capitol Records 2 4, , compact disc. The Dark Side of the Moon. EMI, 2 9, , compact disc. It was a great decade for the guitar. As students for life we are still reaping the fruits today when we are practicing and playing the songs from that time and learning from the minds of those creative guitar players. As always the list is to inspire, explore and motivate. I really appreciate it. Each song title contains a YouTube link to the original song.
Hi Klaus, This is an exciting post. My favorite electric guitar songs are: free bird,walk this way and another brick in the wall. I love your site and understand the need to monetize, but those pop up ads are annoying! Please find another way to pay the bills. Sultans of swing is one of the best songs to learn if you want to get better at dynamics, rhythm and timing.
Top 30 Best Electric Guitar Rock Songs of the 70’s
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